Uttar Pradesh has the largest population in India. Every sixth person on earth lives in India and every sixth person in India belongs to U.P. With 19.98 crore population, as per 2011 census, the share of U.P. in India’s population is 16.5% but the share of state’s GDP in national GDP is just about 8%. No wonder per capita income of U.P. is only 50% or less of national per capita income. There was virtually no gap between state’s per capita income and India’s per capita income at the beginning of the first Five Year Plan but this gap had been widening over the years. This reflects the relative decline of U.P.’s economy in comparison to India and other states. The other social and economic indicators of development- Infant Mortality Rate, Maternal Mortality Ratio, Total Fertility Rate, Literacy rate and HDI etc. are also not very satisfactory for U.P. The economy of Uttar Pradesh faces huge development challenges but the opportunities and the potential for accelerated development of the economy are also vast and unlimited. If India is to achieve a “faster more inclusive and sustainable growth” U.P. has to perform very well in general and in the economic sphere in particular. In this context the publication of the book, ‘The Economy of Uttar Pradesh- An Introduction’ is welcome as it attempts to fill the gaps in the available literature, specially that is suited to the needs of the students, on the economy of Uttar Pradesh.